Scientific Publications

Scientific Publications



McGuigan, K., Conroy, R., Mosler, H.J., du Preez, M., Ubomba-Jaswa, E., Fernandez-Ibañez, P. (2012). Solar water disinfection (SODIS): A review from bench-top to roof-top. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 235-236, 29-46.



Aftim Acra, A., Yester Karahagopian, Y., Zeina Raffoul, Z., & Rashid Dajani R. (1980). Disinfection of oral Rehydration Solutions by Sunlight. The Lancet, 316(8206), 1257-1258.

Berney, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., Egli, T. (2007). Adaptation to UVA radiation of E. coli growing in continuous culture. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 86(2), 149-159.

Berney, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., & Egli, T. (2006). Flow-cytometric study of vital cellular functions in Escherichia coli during solar disinfection (SODIS). Microbiology, 152(6), 1719-1729.

Berney, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., Egli, T. (2006). Gene expression of Escherichia coli in continuous culture during adaptation to artificial sunlight. Environmental Microbiology, 8(9), 1635-1647.

Berney, M., Weilenmann, H. U., Simonetti, A., & Egli, T. (2006). Efficacy of solar disinfection of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 101(4), 828-836.

Berney, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., Ihssen, J., Bassin, C., Egli, T. (2006). Specific growth rate determines the sensitivity of enteric bacteria to thermal, UVA and solar disinfection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(4), 2586-2593.

Bosshard, F., Berney, M., Scheifele, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., & Egli, T. (2009). Solar disinfection (SODIS) and subsequent dark storage of Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri monitored by flow cytometry. Microbiology, 155, 1310–1317.

Bosshard, F., Bucheli, M., Meur, Y., & Egli, T. (2010). The respiratory chain is the cell’s Achilles’ heel during UVA inactivation in Escherichia coli. Microbiology, 156, 2006-2015.

Bosshard, F., Riedel, K., Schneider, T., Gelser, C., Buchell, M., & Egli, T. (2010). Protein oxidation and aggregation in UVA-irradiated Escherichia coli cells as signs of accelerated cellular senescence. Environmental Microbiology, 1-15.

Boyle, M., Sichel, C., Fernandez-Ibanez, P., Arias-Quiroz, G. B., Iriarte-Puna, M., Mercado, A., et al. (2008). Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(10), 2997-3001.

Dejung, S., Fuentes, I., Almanza, G., Jarro, R., Navarro, L., Arias, G., Urquieta, E., Torrico, A., Fenandez, W., Iriarte, M., Birrer, Ch., Stahel, W. A., Wegelin, M. (2007). Effect of solar water disinfection (SODIS) on model microorganisms under improved and field SODIS conditions. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA, 56(4), 245–256.

Fisher, M. B., Keenan, C. R., Nelson, K. L., Voelker, B. M. (2008). Speeding up solar disinfection (SODIS): Effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, pH, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli. Journal of Water and Health, 6(1), 35-51.

Fujioka R. S., Yoneyama B. S. (2002). Sunlight inactivation of human enteric viruses and fecal bacteria. Water Science and Technology, 46(11-12), 291-295.

Gaafar, M. R. (2007). Effect of solar disinfection on viability of intestinal protozoa in drinking water. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 37(1), 65-86.

Gómez-Couso, H., Fontán-Saínz M., Sichel, C., Fernández-Ibáñez, P., & Ares-Mazás, E. (2009). Efficacy of the solar water disinfection method in turbid waters experimentally contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under real field conditions. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 14(6), 620-627

Haider H., Ali W., Haydar S., Tesfamariam S., Sadiq R. (2014). Modeling exposure period for solar disinfection (SODIS) under varying turbidity and cloud cover conditions. Clean technologies and Environmental Policy, 16(5), 861-875.

Heaselgrave, W., Kilvington, S., (2012). The efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against coxsackievirus, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus. Journal of Water and Health, 10(4), 531-538.

Heaselgrave, W., Patel, N., Kilvington, S., Kehoe, S. C., & McGuigan, K. G. (2006). Solar disinfection of poliovirus and Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts in water - a laboratory study using simulated sunlight. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 43(2), 125-130.

Joyce, T. M., McGuigan, K. G., Elmore-Meegan, M., & Conroy, R. M. (1996). Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62(2), 399-402.

Kehoe, S. C., Barer, M. R., Devlin, L. O., & McGuigan, K. G. (2004). Batch process solar disinfection is an efficient means of disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Shigella dysenteriae type I. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 38(5), 410-414.

Kehoe, S. C., Joyce, T. M., Ibrahim, P., Gillespie, J. B., Shahar, R. A. and McGuigan, K. G. (2001). Effect of agitation, turbidity, aluminium foil reflectors and volume on inactivation efficiency of batch-process solar disinfectors. Water Research, 35(4),1061-1065.

Khaengraeng, R., Reed, R. H. (2005). Oxygen and photoinactivation of Escherichia coli in UVA and sunlight. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 99, 39–50.

King, B. J., Hoefel, D., Daminato, D. P., Fanok, S., & Monis, P. T. (2008). Solar UV reduces Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity in environmental waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104(5), 1311-1323.

Lonnen, J., Kilvington, S., Kehoe, S. C., Al-Touati, F., & McGuigan, K. G. (2005). Solar and photocatalytic disinfection of protozoan, fungal and bacterial microbes in drinking water. Water Research, 39(5), 877-883.

Mania, S. K., Kanjura, R., Singha, I. S. B. and Reed, R. H. (2006). Comparative effectiveness of solar disinfection using small-scale batch reactors with reflective, absorptive and transmissive rear surfaces. Water Research, 40(4), 721-727.

Martin-Dominguez, A., Alarcon-Herrera, M. T., Martin-Dominguez, I. R., & Gonzalez-Herrera, A. (2005). Efficiency in the disinfection of water for human consumption in rural communities using solar radiation. Solar Energy, 78(1), 31-40.

McGuigan, K. G., Joyce, T. M., Conroy, R. M., Gillespie, J. B., & Elmore-Meegan, M. (1998). Solar disinfection of drinking water contained in transparent plastic bottles: Characterizing the bacterial inactivation process. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 84(6), 1138-1148.

McGuigan, K. G., Mendez-Hermida, F., Castro-Hermida, J. A., Ares-Mazas, E., Kehoe, S. C., Boyle, M., et al. (2006). Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 101(2), 453-463.

Meera, V., Ahammed, M. M. (2008). Solar disinfection for household treatment of roof-harvested rainwater. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply – WSTWS, 8(2), 153–160.

Méndez-Hermida, F., Ares-Mazás, E., McGuigan, K. G., Boyle, M., Sichel, C., & Fernández-Ibáñez, P. (2007). Disinfection of drinking water contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts under natural sunlight and using the photocatalyst TiO2. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 88(2-3), 105-111.

Méndez-Hermida, F., Castro-Hermida, J. A., Ares-Mazás, E., Kehoe, S. C., & McGuigan, K. G. (2005). Effect of batch-process solar disinfection on survival of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71(3), 1653-1654.

Meyer, V., Reed, R. H. (2001). Solair disinfection of coliform bacteria in hand-drawn drinking water. Water SA, 27(1), 49-52.

Mtapuri-Zinyowera, S., Midiz, N., Muchaneta-Kubera, C. E., Simbini, T., Mduluza, T. (2009). Impact of solar radiation in disinfecting drinking water contaminated with Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolyticadispar at a point-of-use water treatment. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 106(3), 847-852.

Navntoft, C., Ubomba-Jaswa, E., McGuigan, K. G., Fernández-Ibáñez, P. (2008). Effectiveness of solar disinfection using batch reactors with non-imaging aluminium reflectors under real conditions: Natural well-water and solar light. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 93(3), 155–161.

Reed, R. H. (1997). Solar inactivation of faecal bacteria in water: the critical role of oxygen. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 24(4), 276-280.

Reed, R. H. (2004). The inactivation of microbes by sunlight: solar disinfection as a water treatment process. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 54, 333-365.

Reed, R. H., Mani, S. K., Meyer, V. (2000). Solar photo-oxidative disinfection of drinking water: preliminary field observations. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30(6), 432 - 436

Smith, R. J., Kehoe, S. C., McGuigan, K. G., & Barer, M. R. (2000). Effects of simulated solar disinfection of water on infectivity of Salmonella typhimurium. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 31(4), 284-288.

Solarte, Y., Salas, M. L., Sommer, B., Dierolf, C., Wegelin, M. (1997). Uso de la radiacíon solar (UV-A y temperatura) en la inactivación del Vibrio cholerae en agua para consumo humano. Factores que condicionan la eficiencia del proceso. Colombia Médica, 28(3), 123-129.

Sommer, B., Mariño, A., Solarte, Y., Salas, M. L., Dierolf, C., Valiente, C., et al. (1997). SODIS - an emerging water treatment process. Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 46(3), 127-137.

Wegelin, M., Canonica, S., Mechsner, K., Fleischmann, T., Pesaro, F., & Metzler, A. (1994). Solar water disinfection: Scope of the process and analysis of radiation experiments. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - Aqua, 43(4), 154-169.



Conroy, R. M., Elmore-Meegan, M., Joyce, T., McGuigan, K. G., & Barnes, J. (1996). Solar disinfection of drinking water and diarrhoea in Maasai children: A controlled field trial. The Lancet, 348(9043), 1695-1697.

Conroy, R. M., Elmore-Meegan, M., Joyce, T., McGuigan, K. G., & Barnes, J. (1999). Solar disinfection of water reduces diarrhoeal disease: An update. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 81(4), 337-338.

Conroy, R. M., Meegan, M. E., Joyce, T., McGuigan, K., & Barnes, J. (2001). Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in children under 6 years of age. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 85(4), 293-295.

Du Preez, M., Conroy, R. M., Ligondo, S., Hennessy, J., Elmore-Meegan, M., Soita, A., McGuigan, K. G. (2011). Randomized Intervention Study of Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water in the Prevention of Dysentery in Kenyan Children Aged under 5 Years. Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (21), 9315–9323.

Du Preez, M., McGuigan, K., Conroy, R. (2010). Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water In the Prevention of Dysentery in South African Children Aged under 5 Years: The Role of Participant Motivation. Environmental Science & Technology, 44 (22), 8744–8749.

Graf, J., Meierhofer, R., Wegelin, M., & Mosler, H.-J. (2008). Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 18(5), 335-355.

Graf, J., Togouet, S. Z., Kemka, N., Nyiytegeka, D., Meierhofer, R., Pieboji, J. G. (2010). Health gains from solar water disinfection (SODIS): evaluation of a water quality intervention in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Journal of Water and Health, 08.4, 779-796.

Hobbins, M. (2003). The SODIS health impact study (Summary Report). Basel: Swiss Tropical Institute.

Hobbins, M. (2004). Home-based water purification through sunlight: from promotion to health effectiveness. PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Basel.

McGuigan, K. G., Samaiyar, P., Du Preez, M., Conroy, R. M. (2011). High Compliance Randomized Controlled Field Trial of Solar Disinfection of Drinking Water and Its Impact on Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Cambodia. Environmental Science & Technology, 45 (18), 7862–7867.

Rose, A., Roy, S., Abraham, V., Holmgren, G., George, K., Balraj, V., et al. (2006). Solar disinfection of water for diarrhoeal prevention in southern India. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(2), 139-141.


Training strategies

Altherr, A.-M., Mosler, H.-J., Tobias, R., & Butera, F. (2008). Attitudinal and relational factors predicting the use of solar water disinfection: A field study in Nicaragua. Health Education & Behavior, 35(2), 207-220.

Gurung, P., Grimm, B., & Autenrieth, M. (2009). Disseminating the SODIS method: Which approach is most effective? Waterlines, 28(2),130-143(14)

Heri, S., & Mosler, H.-J. (2008). Factors affecting the diffusion of solar water disinfection: A field study in Bolivia. Health Education & Behavior, 35(4), 541-560.

Kraemer, S. (2009). Insights from the SODIS project in Zimbabwe: Assessment of adoption factors and recommendations for effective promotion strategies. Eawag, Dübendorf

Kraemer, S., Mosler, H.-J. (2010). Persuasion factors influencing the decision to use sustainable household water treatment. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 20(1), 61–79.

Meierhofer, R., & Landolt, G. (2009). Factors supporting the sustained use of solar water disinfection - experiences from a global promotion and dissemination program. Desalination, 248, 144–151.

Moser, S., Heri, S., & Mosler, H.-J. (2005). Determinants of the diffusion of SODIS: A quantitative field study in Bolivia (Summary Report). Duebendorf, Switzerland: Eawag.

Moser, S., & Mosler, H.-J. (2008). Differences in influence patterns between groups predicting the adoption of a solar disinfection technology for drinking water in Bolivia. Social Science & Medicine, 67(4), 497-504.

Murinda, S., & Kraemer, S. M. (2008). The potential of solar water disinfection as a household water treatment method in peri-urban Zimbabwe. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 33, 829-832.

Tamas, A. (2009). Successful promotion of Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Zurich.

Tamas, A. (2009). 1st Report of the SODIS Sustainability Study – Nepal. Duebendorf: Eawag.

Tamas, A., & Mosler, H.-J. (2009). SODIS Promotion – Investigating the behavior change process. Paper presented at the Disinfection 2009, Atlanta.

Tamas, A., & Mosler, H.-J. (2011). Why do people stop treating contaminated drinking water with solar water disinfection (SODIS)? Health Education & Behavior, 38(4) 357–366.

Tamas, A., Tobias, R., & Mosler, H.-J. (2009). Promotion of solar water disinfection: Comparing the effectiveness of different strategies in a longitudinal field study in Bolivia. Health Communication, 24(8), 711-722.

Tamas, A., & Wehrle, F. (2011). The SODIS Sustainability Study - Indonesia. Duebendorf: Eawag.


PET bottles

Kohler, M. (2003). Migration of organic components from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water. Report 429670. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA).

Schmid, P., Kohler, M., Meierhofer, R., Luzi, S., & Wegelin, M. (2008). Does the reuse of PET bottles during solar water disinfection pose a health risk due to the migration of plasticisers and other chemicals into the water? Water Research, 42(20), 5054-5060.

Ubomba-Jaswa, E., Fernánez-Ibáñez, P., McGuigan, K.G. (2010). A preliminary Ames fluctuation assay assessment of the genotoxicity of drinking water that has been solar disinfected in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Journal of Water and Health, 08.4, 712-719.

Wegelin, M., Canonica, S., Alder, A. C., Marazuela, D., Suter, M. J. F., Bucheli, T. D., et al. (2001). Does sunlight change the material and content of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles? Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 50(3), 125-133.

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Last update: 08.01.2015